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Grants


DETERRING ATROCITIES: IDENTIFYING THE LOGIC OF CREDIBLE PREVENTION

DonorISA Catalytic Research Grant
Duration: Ongoing

A better understanding of the conditions under which preventive actions take place and the effect of these actions is highly valuable for both policymakers and scholars, particularly given the increased prioritization of prevention by the United Nations and its member states. Since the inception of the liberal world order, the prevention of mass atrocities has been one of its core aims. The basic assumption underlying the atrocity-prevention norm, and the liberal international order itself, is that the prevention of mass atrocities should supersede state interest and sovereignty. But if the global commitment to mass atrocity prevention is so strong, grounded in international law and operationalized in multilateral institutions, why has it failed so abysmally in Burma, Syria, Central African Republic, South Sudan, and Burundi, to name only the most recent examples? By convening scholars and drawing on insights from a variety of academic disciplines, we hope to advance a new research agenda that examines how, why, and when states and multilateral organizations take preventive actions to deter mass atrocities.

TEAM Members

Susanna Campbell, Co-Principal Investigator 
Kate Cronin-Furman, Co-Principal Investigator

FUNDS RAISED

US$ 9,080


STRENGTHENING THE UNLIKELY SOURCES OF PEACEBUILDING SUCCESS

DonorU.S. Institute of Peace
Duration: Ongoing

Over the past two decades, international peacebuilding has become mainstream and is now part of the repertoire of most United Nations entities, OECD donors, and many INGOs. The liberal international order that is central to many of these peacebuilding efforts has also been the subject of much criticism. As a result, improved peacebuilding success is not likely to result from ‘business as usual.’ Instead, we need to identify the unlikely sources of peacebuilding success and strengthen them. Over the course of three workshops, this project will convene key individuals around three of these unlikely sources of peacebuilding success: 1) Rule-Breaking Bureaucrats; 2) Emerging Powers and International Peacebuilding; and 3) Non-violent Peace and Resistance Movements. By convening key actors who have the capacity and will to strengthen emergent peacebuilding capacities, the project hopes to contribute to the future growth of effective peacebuilding.

TEAM MEMBERS

Susanna Campbell, Co-Principal Investigator 
Chuck Call, Co-Principal Investigator

FUNDS RAISED

US$ 78,948


ONTOLOGY OF PEACE: MEASURING PEACE IN WAR

Donor: Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA)
Duration: Ongoing

What causes peace in the midst or aftermath of civil war? In spite of the breadth of research on conflict-affected countries, we still do not have answers to this fundamental question. In fact, most research on peacekeeping and peace processes measures peace as the absence of violence, rather than the presence of peaceful cooperation. As a result, it identifies the factors that lead to the absence of violence, not those that sustain peace. Building on their previous work in this area, this project team will develop a theory and measure of peace in the midst and aftermath of civil war.

The project will result in a final paper and blog post that will outline how researchers and evaluators can more effectively assess the causes of “peace”. The team will use the case of Colombia to develop this measure of peace, harmonizing existing data sources. Colombia provides unique analytical opportunities to investigate the relationship between violent conflict and peaceful cooperation. The Colombian civil war has been ongoing for over half a century, with a great deal of variation in episodes of violent conflict and peaceful cooperation. As a middle-income country that has made significant investment in its own statistics infrastructure and national research institutions, Colombia has significantly better sub-national data than most countries affected by ongoing civil war.

TEAM Members

Susanna Campbell, Co-Principal Investigator 
Michael Findley, Co-Principal Investigator
Kyosuke Kikuta, Co-Principal Investigator

FUNDS RAISED

US$ 41,000


AIDING PEACE?
DONOR BEHAVIOR IN CONFLICT AFFECTED COUNTRIES

Donor: Swiss Network for International Studies (SNIS)
Duration: January 2014 – June 2016

The objective of this research project is to understand the causes of donor behavior at the sub-national level during a peace process. Do donors respond to the ebbs and flows of a peace process or is their behavior motivated by other factors that are exogenous to events within the conflict-torn country? The literatures on international aid, peacebuilding, and peace processes have thus far failed to answer this question.

The project employs an innovative multi-method research design to answer these questions. It uses a nested case study approach, which allows us to compare the behavior of different types of donors (i.e., bilateral, multilateral, OECD and non-OECD, Regional Development Banks, etc.) in three relatively contemporaneous peace processes (i.e., Liberia, Nepal, and Sudan).

The research team, made up of political scientists and economists, has a very strong background in international aid, conflict-affected countries, peace processes, sub-national comparative analyses, and rigorous quantitative and qualitative methods. The dissemination events and discussions that the team will hold with its project partners and contacts will ensure that the research findings are made available to help improve donor behavior in conflict-affected countries.

TEAM MEMBERS

Susanna Campbell, Principal Investigator
Jean-Louis Arcand, Co-Principal Investigator
Michael Findley, Co-Principal Investigator
Gabriele Spilker, Research Collaborator
Judith Vorrath, Research Collaborator
Josiah Marineau, Research Collaborator
Bradley Parks, Collaborator
Achim Wennmann, Collaborator

FUNDS RAISED

US$ 240,000


BAD BEHAVIOR?
EXPLAINING THE PERFORMANCE OF INTERNATIONAL PEACEBUILDING ORGANIZATIONS

Donor: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)
Duration: November 2013 – October 2015

The project has two concrete objectives. First, it will test and refine a theory developed by Dr. Susanna Campbell that explains IO, INGO and bilateral donor performance in war-to-peace transitions, with the ultimate aim of creating a generalizable theory. Second, it will expand on her work undertaken so far to cover different regional organizations engaged in peacebuilding. In order to achieve their research objectives, Dr. Susanna Campbell and Prof. Stephanie Hofmann will combine their extensive academic knowledge and field research experience, and jointly study various case study organizations over a ten to fifteen year period in two countries: Haiti and Liberia. The focal point of analysis will therefore be country-level offices of IOs, INGOs, and government aid agencies that have a clearly specified peacebuilding aims, within these two countries.

The findings from this project have significance for the theoretical debates within International Relations on the performance of IOs, INGOs, and donor aid agencies and the role of accountability, legitimacy, informal institutions, and institutional change therein. It will also shed light on the effectiveness of current policies and tools intended to improve peacebuilding performance, and provide a potentially important framework for peacebuilding organizations to assess and improve their positive contribution to post-war transitions.

TEAM MEMBERS

Stephanie Hofmann, Principal Investigator
Susanna Campbell, Co-Principal Investigator

FUNDS RAISED

US$ 270,000


CROWDSOURCING PEACE:
CLOSING THE FEEDBACK LOOP IN WAR-TO-PEACE TRANSITIONS

Donor: Center on Conflict and Development, Texas A&M University
Duration: August 2014 – November 2014

How can donors close the feedback loop between themselves and local institutions in war-to-peace transitions? Donors often do not understand how their behavior positively or negatively affects the dynamics within countries emerging from civil war. They often lack real relationships with the communities that they aim to serve, failing to receive regular feedback from them about the evolution of the country’s local level dynamics. Instead, donors monitor conflict and cooperation among elites without engaging local institutions and the diverse perspectives of the country’s population.

The lack of direct feedback from conflict-affected populations undermines donors’ understanding of the relationship between their aid allocation strategies and the evolution of a country’s war-to-peace transition. We argue that geocoded aid data and information communications technologies, such as crowdsourcing, can help donor agencies to keep on top of a dynamic political context, engage with community members and local institutions, and respond quickly to information that is presented in clear maps. Geocoding of the aid given by donors, crowdsourcing that enables populations to ‘speak’ directly to donors, and the visualization of this data through maps together create a powerful approach to enable donors to better understand the relationship between their aid and the evolution of a country’s war-to-peace transition. Better informed donors will, hopefully, be better able have a more positive influence on these dynamics.

TEAM MEMBERS

Susanna Campbell, Co-Principal Investigator
Michael Findley, Co-Principal Investigator

FUNDS RAISED

US$ 24,600


Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of the UN Peacebuilding Fund in Burundi 2007-2013

Donor: UN Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO) and the PBF Joint Steering Committee (JSC) in Burundi
Duration: October 2013 – January 2014

Between 2007 and 2013, the UN Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) allocated US$ 44 million from their Peacebuilding and Recovery Facility (PRF) and US$ 5 million from their Immediate Response Facility (IRF) to help consolidate peace in Burundi. This makes Burundi the top recipient of PBF funds out of the 23 countries that the PBF has supported. Burundi was also one of the first two countries, along with Sierra Leone, to receive PBF funding and be included on the agenda of the UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC). The duration and magnitude of the PBF’s support to Burundi make it an important case to study and understand.

This evaluation is different from the other evaluations that the PBF has commissioned because it assesses the contribution of the PBF support to Burundi’s post-war transition for the entire period of PBF support to Burundi (2007 – 2013), which included two tranches of PBF funding (PBF I and PBF II) and the preparation of a third one (PBF III), and draws lessons for the PBF based on its support over this entire period. The same lead evaluator that evaluated the first PBF tranche in 2010 also led this evaluation, enabling the evaluation team to conduct an in-depth comparison of PBF support in different sectors, with different staff, and to different configurations of the UN at the country level. To do this, the evaluation employed an innovative research design that is grounded in a household-level survey of over 250 households from randomly sampled towns with and without PBF involvement, and over 165 semi-structured interviews, 90 of which are drawn from the randomly sampled towns, as well as a detailed document review. This evaluation was conducted by a team of thirteen researchers and research assistants.

TEAM LEADER

Susanna Campbell, Principal Investigator

TEAM MEMBERS

Anne Marie Bihirabake, Tracy Dexter, Prof. Michael Findley, Prof. Stephanie Hofmann, Josiah Marineau, René Manirakiza, and Daniel Walker

FUNDS RAISED

US$ 52,000

DOWNLOADS

Final Report
Supplemental Annex


Evaluation of UN Peacebuilding Fund in Burundi (2007-2009)

Donor: United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO)
Duration: October 2009 – December 2009

Independent external evaluation of the relevance, efficiency, and effectiveness of $35 million provided by the UN Peacebuilding Fund to the United Nations System in Burundi, between 2007 and 2009.

TEAM LEADER

Susanna Campbell, Principal Investigator

TEAM MEMBERS

Justine Nkurunziza and Leonard Kayobera

FUNDS RAISED

Funding raised: US$ 35,000

DOWNLOADS

Final Report


Evaluation of Burundi Leadership Training Program (BLTP)

Donor: World Bank Post-Conflict Fund
Duration: May – August 2004

Independent external evaluation of the Burundi Leadership Training Program (BLTP), a training and dialogue project run by Dr. Howard Wolpe of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (WWICS).

TEAM MEMBERS

Peter Uvin, Principal Investigator
Susanna Campbell, Co-Principal Investigator

FUNDS RAISED

US$ 40,000

DOWNLOADS

Download Report